Monday, December 30, 2019
An effective leader influences followers in a manner to achieve desired goals. Different leadership styles may affect organizational leadership is a stronger predictor of performance is influenced by a competitive and innovative culture. Organizational Culture is influenced by leadership style and consequently, leadership style affects organizational performance. Nearly every business that people engage in requires some organizational leadership to ensure that things go smoothly. Sometimes people clamor for that position while others shrink away from it because they are uncertain of their own abilities. There are many different ways to approach leadership when youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been placed in charge. The leader-Member exchange is one such theory toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A leader is most effective when this communication has respect, and trust. There is one criticism of this theory based on fairness. Because of the dynamics of in and out groups, all group members wonÃ¢â¬â¢t receive the same attention from the leader. One of those ways is situational leadership, a theory first proposed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard in the Ã¢â¬Å"Training and Development JournalÃ¢â¬ in 1969. They viewed traditional leadership as one side no longer fits every situation. Situational leadership his was designed to address the dilemma of matching managers to proper job based on maturity and leadership skills. Blanchard and Hersey theorized that various situations called for different types of leadership. In order to be successful, a leader has to be able to adapt to those different situations (Northouse, p.99). Situational leadership has four leadership styles that help influence the subordinates. A leaders decisions are based on the ability and motivation of his or her subordinates, ranging from highly motivated and hi skill to low motivation and low skill. The graph below demonstrates this. None of the styles is considered to be optimal. In order for leaders to be effective, they must be able to adapt and be flexible depending on each situation that arrises. Situational leadership has several strengths and weaknesses. Path Goal theory states that a good
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Joseph Stalin was in control for over twenty years and during that time he not only tried to conquer Nazism, but he also tried to update Russia. He definitely represented the word terror whenever he was in power as well. Whenever he learned what it felt like to rule, he loved it. Joseph Stalin was born on December 18th, 1879, in Gori, Georgia. He was the son of a cobbler and a washerwomen. Joseph was a very weak child. He has scars on his face from smallpox whenever he was only seven. He was in a carriage accident a couple years after that that left his left arm a little disfigured. He could have gotten his injury from blood poisoning. The children around him treated him awful because of he was seen as nothing but weak. This led Joseph to want to be respected more and he wanted to be better overall. This also led him to be awful to anyone that was mean to him. Another reason he could have wanted power so bad is that he grew up with his father abusing his mother and himself . Stalin saw how much respect his father got from doing awful things to get it, therefore he grew up thinking that if he was mean to people he would get respect. The children seeing him as nothing but weak did not help that either. His mother wished for him to become a priest and did end up putting him in church school in 1888. Joseph performed well in school and got a scholarship to Tiflis Theological Seminary in 1894. Even though he did really well in school, he left in 1899.Show MoreRelatedJoseph Stalin : The Dictator Of The Soviet Union Essay1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJoseph Stalin was a former general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist party of the Soviet Union. Stalin was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1929 to 1953. His Red Army helped defeat Nazi Germany during WWII. On December 18th, 1879, in the Russian peasant village of Gori, Georgia, Joseph Stalin was born. His full birthname was Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili. He died on March 5th, 1953 in Kuntsevo Dacha. Joseph was buried in the Kremlin Wall NecropolisRead MoreJoseph Stalins Power1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Joseph Stalin is one of the most notorious figures in history. It all started in 1875, with a young Caucasian, Vissarion Ivanovich (son of Ivan) Djugashvili, set out from the village Didi Ã¢â¬â Lilo, near Tiflis, the capital of the Caucasus, to settle in the little Georgian country town of Gori. There he started a small shoemakers business. Vissarion Djugashvili was the son of Geogian peasants who only ten years before had still been surfs. He was just a slave to some Georgian landlord. He would neverRead MoreStalins Rise To Power984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Comrade General Secretary Joseph StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to power in the former Soviet Union was born in the midst of the Russian Revolution of 1917. His association and friendship with Vladimir Lenin also played an integral part in the dictatorÃ¢â¬â¢s power grab. Stalin participated in the December 1904 oil worker strike in Baku, Georgia, which ended successfully later that month. It was the first time in Russian history that a collective bargaining agreement was signed between oil company owners and oil workersRead MoreLeon Trotsky s Influence On The Soviet Revolution1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrevolutionary military ideas made him a great military leader. However, Leon Trotsky was also prone to arrogance, fatal over-confidence, dismissiveness and sarcasm, qualities that contributed to his demise. His downfall was caused by Joseph Stalin as well. Joseph Stalin set out to destroy the old party leadership and take total control. Leon Trotsky was one of the most influential Russian lea ders, because of his political and military leadership and revolutionary theories. Leon Trotsky helped makeRead MoreEssay on The life of Joseph Stalin554 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe life of Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin. One of the Russias most supreme leaders. But one of its most horrid as well. He brought them up while also letting them down. Some could say where would we be without him. But others wish they never were led by him. He went from nothing to the most powerful man in the now most powerful country. In the early years. He was first born Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili to a poor shoemaker of a father on December 21 1879. It was a small village calledRead MoreAnimal Farm Or Ussr Part II1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslike All the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Men a novel by Robert Penn Warren, Animal Farm has strong political undertones relating to the the skewed government of Soviet Russia. Throughout the book many animal characters can be identified with the political leaders and influences throughout Soviet Russia. According to New World Encyclopedia, Ã¢â¬Å"New Historicism is an approach to literary criticism and literary theory based on the premise that a literary work should be considered a product of the time, place, and historicalRead More Comparing Dictators Adolf Hitler versus Benito Mussolini versus Joseph Stalin1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis essay will compare the three leaders who are famous for their dictatorship and totalitarianism during the 30s decade-Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin. Totalitarianism is when a government gains absolute and total control over the country, including the freedom of thought and will as well as the citizen?s lifestyle, no other political parties are allowed and has the concept where the country is most important. The difference and similarity between their ideology, usage of propagandaRead MoreWas The Cold War Happened?1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWinston Churchill, and Soviet premier Joseph Stalin-convened at Yalta in the Soviet Crimea. This was the leadership of the world powers at the beginning of the end of WWII and the beginning of the Cold War. At the Yalta conference the world powers discussed the agreements on Poland and Japan. Stalin believed that Poland should fall under RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s rule. Ã¢â¬Å"He considered a Soviet Sphere of influence in Eastern Europe essential to Russian securityÃ¢â¬ (PG. 832). Stalin believed that by controlling PolandRead MoreWhy Did Joseph Stalin Cause Tension Between The United States Of Am erica And The Union Of Soviet Communist Soviet1753 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesinvestigation assesses the following question: To what extent did Joseph Stalin cause tension between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics during the World War II era? To grasp the true cause of the Cold War, research must include insight into separate ideals believed by each; the will of communism spread vs the will of capitalism to contain it; the anxiety of nuclear war; and the presidency of Harry S. Truman. The main sources will include StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s Curse, writtenRead MoreCommunism And Eastern Europe : World War II1385 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCapitalism led by the Western Allies, funded by the United States Marshall Plan, spread providing a short time of economic prosperity. The AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s plan however could not venture as far east as West Germany with MoscowÃ¢â¬â¢s direction of Communism led by Joseph Stalin and he took over a large portion of Eastern Europe wi th many open statements and empty promises. These two ideologies caused an enlarged time of tension stemming from the drastically different values they were known to embrace, leading to a horrific
Friday, December 13, 2019
Writing Assignment Maria Zuniga Book ReportDecember 9, 2005 Corrections Ã¢â¬Å"Sor JuanaÃ¢â¬ is a biography of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz written by Octavio Paz and translated by Margaret Sayers Peden. It is a book of 470 pages divided in six parts that besides Sor JuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s life and work, explain the difficulties of the time for an intellectual woman. It was published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1988. We will write a custom essay sample on Sor Juana or any similar topic only for you Order Now Reading this book gave me the best opportunity to know more about someone that although has been very influential in my entire life, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know all her history.My admiration and respect for Sor Juana started since I was a child and one of my sisters used to read her poems. Through my literature classes I knew a little more about her and the admiration and respect continued growing. Sor Juana became for me a stereotype of intellect, power, femininity, persistence and freedom combined with the devotion to God. Her story makes me learn to follow my dreams, to be ambitious, and over all to never ever give up. Juana Ines de la Cruz was born in Mexico in 1648. She grew up in the Panayan Hacienda, which was run for her mother for more than thirty years although she never learned to read.Sor Juana started to take lessons at age or three. During a long period of her childhood, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t eat cheese because Ã¢â¬Å"It made one slow-witted,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Desire for learning was stronger than the desire for eating. Ã¢â¬ By the time she was six or seven, she knew how to read and write. As she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go to the university (because she was a woman), she studied and read by herself. She used to cut-off several inches of her hair (when hair was considered one of the most important female features), as a challenge for new learning Ã¢â¬Å"A head shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be adorned with hair and naked of learningÃ¢â¬ If she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet the goal, then she cut it again.Sor Juana was sent to Mexico City when she was eight to live with her grandfather, who had one of the biggest libraries of those times. By age 15, as one of the most learned women in Mexico, she was presented at court with the Viceroy and his wife (maximum authorities in Mexico). As a lady-in waiting, Juana Ines would become known at court for her wit and beauty as well as for her erudite intelligence. To ascertain the extent of her learning, the Marquise gathered together some of the most astute minds of the day, poets, historians, theologians, philosophers, and mathematicians.Juana Ines answered the questions and arguments directed at her, impressing them all with her mental prowess. At age 20 she entered the Convent of San Jeronimo, known for the mildness of its discipline. The convent was not a ladder toward God but a refuge for a woman who found herself alone in the world. She lived in a two-storey cell where she read insatiably and amassed an impressive library while pursuing her writing and intellectual pursuits. She brought the elegance of the court with her by transforming the convent locutory into an intellectual salon.The next Viceroy, the Marquis de La Laguna and the Marquise Maria Luisa, the Countess de Pareda, were among the court society and literary devotees who came to talk and debate with Sor Juana. Sor Juana wrote sacred poems and erotic love poems, vocal music, villancicos performed in the cathedral, plays, secular comedies, and some of the most significant documents in the history of feminism and philosophical literature. Her use of language, though characterized by the Baroque style, has a modern essence.Her public face reveals the impiousness of an undaunted spirit who appears, not as a nun, but as an independent woman. One of Sor JuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s archetypes was Isis, Egyptian goodness inventor of writing, a symbol of intellect. She also identified herself with maidens of antiquity, poetically divinely inspired to produce poems and prophecies thinking Ã¢â¬Å"There were not enou gh punishment or reprimands to prevent me from reading. Ã¢â¬ The life and work of Sor Juana lines can be summed as: knowledge is a transgression committed by a solitary hero who then is punished.Not the glory of knowledge (denied to mortals) but the glory of the act of knowing. Sor Juana was a pivotal figure who lived at a unique point in history bound by two opposing world views: one the closed universe of Ptolemy and of the Inquisition, which still held sway in Mexico/New Spain; the other characterized by the new science of Copernicus, Newton, and Galileo. On her monumental philosophical poem Primer sueno/First Dream the soul is pictured as intellect, not a religious pilgrim. At the height of the journey, at the fullest understanding reason can attain, there was no vision.Instead, the soul drew back at the immensity of the universe and foundered in confusion. In 1690, requested by the Bishop, Sor Juana wrote her only theological criticism, which she insisted not for public view. However, the Bishop published and censured it with an imaginary name of Ã¢â¬Å"Sor Philotea. Ã¢â¬ In defiant response, Sor Juana wrote Ã¢â¬Å"La Respuesta de la poetisa a la muy ilustre Sor Philotea de la Cruz,Ã¢â¬ a feminist manifesto defending womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to be educated and pursue learning, citing over 40 women who had made significant contributions throughout history.This work ignited the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath. In a climate of intimidation and fear Sor Juana signed Ã¢â¬Å"Protesta que rubricada con su sangre, hizo de su fe y amor a DiosÃ¢â¬ a statement of self-condemnation in bloodShe renewed her vows and surrendered her musical and scientific instruments, as well as her library of 4,000 volumes, considered at that time to be the largest in Mexico. Two years of silence and penance followed. Then in 1695, while ministering to nuns struck by an epidemic, she herself succumbed and died.Sor Juana has been an inspirational model to follow through all the situations t hat she faced. She succeeded in a world that was completely against her. The lack of father, which was almost a crime in that time, the lack of freedom to study, to talk, even to think, and over all the prohibition to be herself were some of her obstacles. Every time I am facing an obstacle, I just recall her story and imagine the innumerable sacrifices she had made to get the freedom of learning.After reading her story, I see the world in a different way. Now I know that all those small decisions that I take every day, such as the cloth I wear, what to eat, to read, what to say, and even what to feel are privileges granted for marvelous people like Sor Juan Ines de la Cruz. I also know that all those people had to pay a high price for these privileges; some of them pay with their lives. I feel not just impressed, but grateful to Sor Juana, her cultural heredity, and womanÃ¢â¬â¢s worth. How to cite Sor Juana, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the IT Alignment Volkswagen Company. Answer: Introduction IT alignment in the business is referred to the IT processes that are aligned to the business in order to achieve the organizational goals and to make the business more effective (Ye and Wang 2013). These alignment procedures generally supports the business and are incorporated with them in order to increase the efficiency of the business. The report provides a brief analysis about the Volkswagen case study and the IT alignment in the business related to it. The report provides the strengths and weaknesses of Volkswagen and their operations. In addition to this the report also provides the role of the IS in the company. The IT alignment of the company, the challenges faced by it and the remedies to the challenges have also been provided in the report. Strength and Challenges of Volkswagen The first car of the company was designed in the year 1930 by Ferdinand Porsche in Germany (Walter 2014). The vehicles were designed with the purpose of transporting families at a very high speed with very low consumption of fuel. The Beetle was one of the most popular cars that were designed by the company. It is bestselling car of all time. The sales of the car increased at a huge rate after its introduction to the market. The sale of the car continued for about 20 years. The sales ended around the year 1970. Although, the Latin America the sales of the car went on till 1990. Strength The company provided the cars for family purposes. The cars could maintain an effective highway speed. The cars also consumed a very low amount of fuel. The Beetle had reliable air cooled engines. The vehicles that were designed by the company were very stylish. In addition to all these the company had been proposed to accept more than 40 projects lately. Challenges During the 1990s the sales of the company dropped precariously. In addition to this the midlevel managers at the Volkswagen of America company had developed some unhealthy professional habits that hampered the company. In addition to this, the Executive also wanted to break the patterns of the sales of the company. In addition to this, the company were allocated projects worth $210 million, but the company had budget allocation of only about $60 millions Volkswagens Operations In order to tackle the challenges faced by the company lately they had to implement some resolutions for countering the effects of their decreasing sales (Bereford and Barrie 2015). The company had developed a motive to keep the main focus on the core processes of marketing that would be helping the company in focusing on the marketing and the sales processes, the after sales services that are provided to the customers, and the logistics of the vehicular distribution procedures. In addition to this, the company also want to push for the one-tier brand position. They wanted to improve the overall rank in the market. The Information system had performed several role for the company (Bakersville and Wood-Harper 2016). The IS produced the rate of sales for the company per year. The sales of the company peaked in the year 1960. But after the period the sale of the company went into cycles of ups and downs. Due this the sales chart was also known as the Himalayas chart. The sale fell until the rabbit was introduced in the year 1977. The rates of sales of the beetles were decreased by the year 1970 but had continued in Latin America till 1990. But the sales of the company were the lowest in the year 1990. THIs phase was known as the valley of despair. The IS of the company also indicated to the company the need of diversifying their products. IT alignment at Volkswagen question how can IT alignment be achieved Challenges of the IT alignment Due to this IT alignment of the company the company faced many challenges andifficulties (Ullah and Lai 2013). Remedies of the challenges. Weak point identified by Group Audit: the shortcomings and misconduct of employees and other weakness faced in the processes. The tolerance of company against breaching of certain rules was looked after. Conclusion For conclusion it can be easily said that the, IT alignment is very important for any kind of organization. The report has provided the case of the Volkswagen of America company. Although the organization faces several challenges due to the IT alignment, yet they can be very easily overcome to increase the overall efficiency of the company. References Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. InEnacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2(pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing. Beresford, B. and Barrie, P., 2015. Using Performance Mapping and Gap Analysis to Improve Performance: An Evidence-Based Assessment.Cases on Human Performance Improvement Technologies, p.1. Coltman, T., Tallon, P., Sharma, R. and Queiroz, M., 2015. Strategic IT alignment: twenty-five years on.Journal of Information Technology,30(2), pp.91-100. Gerow, J.E., Thatcher, J.B. and Grover, V., 2015. Six Types of IT-Business Strategic Alignment: An investigation of the constructs and their measurement.European Journal of Information Systems,24(5), pp.465-491. Ismail, N.A. and King, M., 2014. Factors influencing the alignment of accounting information systems in small and medium sized Malaysian manufacturing firms.Journal of Information Systems and Small Business,1(1-2), pp.1-20. Ullah, A. and Lai, R., 2013. A systematic review of business and information technology alignment.ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS),4(1), p.4. Walter, T., 2014.Total Cost of Ownership-Demonstrating the importance of quality awareness in the purchasing function of the Volkswagen Group of America(Master's thesis, University of Twente). Wu, S.P.J., Straub, D.W. and Liang, T.P., 2015. How information technology governance mechanisms and strategic alignment influence organizational performance: Insights from a matched survey of business and it managers.Mis Quarterly,39(2), pp.497-518. Ye, F. and Wang, Z., 2013. Effects of information technology alignment and information sharing on supply chain operational performance.Computers Industrial Engineering,65(3), pp.370-377.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud Paper The Impact of inventory fraud can be expensive and affect an organizations reports. Inventory errors will not only affect the balance sheet but the Income statement as well. Errors from theft or fraud wealth the physical Inventory will misstate the costs of goods sold, gross profit, and net Income. If the losses from fraudulent are covered up, the organization will be misleading the government by not abiding by the fair disclosure responsibility, and basically guarantees unreliable ND false information within its financial documents. Prevention is the key to deter this type of fraudulent behavior. Strong controls. Policies that communicate theft will be prosecuted, and a hotlist can be introduced to this incidents. Since employees are at the heart of this problem, companies should have criminal and background checks on employees before they are hired. However, criminal and background checks do have there limitations, since the majority who steal may have never been caught. In addition, companies can also be checked to ensure that they have a valid tax id number, and that no complaints have filed with any agency such as Better Business Bureau. Random inventory checks instead of pre- planned inventory counts should be used. The inventory counts should match what is on hand to what is on record. In addition, to prevent collusion amongst employees during the inventory count the organization can change the personnel counting during this period. The shorting of shipments can be a tricky situation that may involve the supplier, delivery personnel, and the company employee. Control over the inventory should begin as soon as the inventory is received. We will write a custom essay sample on Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A way to control fraud is by the use of pre-numbered receiving reports that are to be completed by the receiving department as soon as a shipment arrives. To make sure the inventory received is what is ordered, each receiving report should match the companys original purchase order for the goods. In addition, the price of goods on the purchase order, should be compared to price the vendor billed the company on the vendors Invoice. Lastly, additional security measures can be Implemented to prevent theft. For example, restricting unauthorized access, If business Is not operating the area should be locked, and when removing merchandise the use of requisition forms authorizing the removal of Items. In conclusion, Inventory fraud Is an expensive Illness that plaques companies worldwide. Inventories are essential for merchandising and manufacturing businesses. Prevention and Internal control procedures are needed to protect inventories from damage and employee and consumer theft. By genes as not being criminal, so where does it begin or where does it stop? There is no easy schemes may include management and its vendors/ suppliers. The impact of inventory fraud can be expensive and affect an organizations reports. Inventory errors will not only affect the balance sheet but the income statement as well. Errors from theft or fraud within the physical inventory will misstate the costs of goods sold, gross profit, and net income. If the losses from not abiding by the fair disclosure responsibility, and basically guarantees unreliable Prevention is the key to deter this type of fraudulent behavior. Strong controls, achieved is what is ordered, each receiving report should match the companys invoice. Lastly, additional security measures can be implemented to prevent theft. For example, restricting unauthorized access, if business is not operating the area should be locked, and when removing merchandise the use of requisition forms authorizing the removal of items. In conclusion, inventory fraud is an expensive illness that plaques companies worldwide. Inventories are essential for merchandising and manufacturing businesses. Prevention and internal control procedures are needed to protect
Monday, November 25, 2019
Definition and Examples of Echo Utterances in English An echo utterance isÃ speech that repeats, in whole or in part, what has just been said by another speaker. Sometimes called simply echo. AnÃ echo utterance, saysÃ Ãâscar GarcÃ a AgustÃ n, isnt necessarily an utterance attributable to a specific person; it can refer to a group of people or even to popular wisdom (Sociology of Discourse, 2015).Ã A direct question that repeats part or all of something which someone else has just said is called an echo question. Examples and Observations Claire Dunphy: All right, everybody back to work!Gloria Delgado-Pritchett: Everybody back to work!Claire Dunphy: I just said that.Gloria Delgado-Pritchett: And I co-said it.(Julie Bowen and SofÃ a Vergara, Dance Dance Revelation. Modern Family, 2010) Olivia: If the temperature is dropping, this mess could freeze up. We got to get outta here.Cassie: We got to get out of here.Olivia: I just said that. Where are you going?Cassie: If the temperature is dropping, this mess could freeze up.Olivia: I just said that.Cassie: We got to get out of here.Olivia: I just said that!(Marsha A. Jackson, Sisters. The National Black Drama Anthology, ed. by Woodie King. Applause Theater Books, 1995) Echo Utterances and Meanings We repeat one another. This is how we learn to talk. We repeat one another, and we repeat ourselves. AnÃ echo utterance is a type of spoken language that repeats, in whole or in part, whats just been said by another speaker, often with contrasting, ironic, or contradictory meaning. How old are you, Bob asks.Nineteen, Gigi says.He says nothing, as this does not deserve the courtesy of response.Seventeen, she says.Seventeen?Well, not quite, she says. Sixteen until I get to my next birthday.Sixteen? Bob asks. SIX-teen?Well, maybe not exactly, she says. (Jane Vandenburgh,Ã Architecture of the Novel: A Writers Handbook. Counterpoint, 2010) Echo Utterances and Attitudes Wolfram Bublitz, Neal R. Norrick,Ã A phenomenon that is not extra communicative and still represents hardly an instance of metacommunication is the so-calledÃ echo-utterance, where the speaker echoes the preceding speaker by repeating some linguistic material yet giving a specific turn to it . . ..Ã Echo statements such as in the following exampleÃ usually just convey attitudes toward the propositional state of affairs quoted/echoed. He: Its a lovely day for a picnic.[They go for a picnic and it rains.]She: (sarcastically) Its a lovely day for a picnic, indeed.(Sperber and Wilson, 1986: 239) (Axel HÃ ¼bler, Metapragmatics. Foundations of Pragmatics, ed. byÃ Wolfram Bublitz et al. Walter de Gruyter, 2011) The Fifth Type of Sentence The traditional classification of major sentences recognizes statements, questions, commands . . . and exclamations. But there is a fifth type of sentence, used only in dialogue, whose function is to confirm, question, or clarify what the previous speaker has just said. This is the echo utterance.Echo utterance structure reflects that of the preceding sentence, which it repeats in whole or in part. All types of sentences can be echoes. StatementsA: John didnt like the filmB: He didnt what?Questions:A: Have you got my knife?B: Have I got your wife?!Directives:A: Sit down here.B: Down there?Exclamations:A: What a lovely day!B: What a lovely day, indeed! Usage Echoes sometimes sound impolite unless accompanied by an apologetic softening phrase, such as Im sorry or I beg your pardon. This is most noticeable with the question What did you say?Ã often shortened to What? Dont say what, say pardon is a common parental plea to children.(David Crystal, Rediscover Grammar. Pearson Longman, 2004) Read More Broken-Record ResponseConversation AnalysisRepetitionSpeech ActUtterance
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Alan Turings method - Essay Example Alan Mathison Turing was born to an upper middle class British family in London, 23 June 1912. He was educated at Sherborne School. While in his school, he was criticized for his handwriting by his teachers. He also struggled at English and mathematics as he was too involved with developing his own ideas to produce solutions to problems using the methods taught by his teachers. From his early years of schooling he has amazed many of his teachers. He tried to always find his own solutions and in spite of producing unconventional answers, Turing did win almost every possible mathematics prize while at Sherborne. This has amazed many of his teachers. The one subject he liked was chemistry. However from a very early age, he carried out experiments following his own plan which did not please his chemistry teacher. As a result of these Turing's headmaster once wrote:- Ã¢â¬Å"If he is to stay at Public School, he must aim at becoming educated. If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a Public SchoolÃ¢â¬ . In spite of the difficult schooling years, Turing entered King's College, Cambridge, in 1931 to study mathematics. He had a much easier time in college than in school as he could explore more of his own ideas in college.Ã Turing studied mathematics with increasing distinction and as a result of his academics he was elected a Fellow of the college in 1935. The paper "On Computable Numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem" (Turing 1936-37) was his first and perhaps greatest success.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
EGT2 - Essay Example We can also say that as the income of a consumer will increase, he will consume less of those goods The coefficient of Cross-price elasticity helps us determine whether the good is complementary or substitute to one another and if the elasticity has negative sign it means that the goods are complementary. Where as if the goods are strong substitutes to each other then there will be a positive sign(this can be easily understand from the example given in part A that there is a positive relationship between price of Pepsi and quantity demand of coke). Similarly, when the elasticity is POSITIVE it means it is a normal good (luxury good). As your income will increase you will demand more branded goods. Instead of a normal coffee you would like to enjoy coffee from Starbucks, designer dresses and Rolex watches. The coefficient of income elasticity for inferior good is always negative. (As income and quantity demand moves in opposite direction). And positive for normal goods (income and quantity demand moves in same direction) All above elasticity of demand plays a significant role in understanding the behavior of consumer or individual under each scenario. We can also predict a possible outcome with the changes in either of the determinant. If the substitute for a particular product is open to a consumer, then the demand would be elastic which means that the increase in price of product Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ will decrease its quantity demanded and people will be willing to consume more of the substitute good as it is cheaper than product Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ and also provides equal utility and vice versa. We know that there is always a positive relationship between price of one good and quantity demanded of the substitute good. Hence if price of a good Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ increases then the quantity demand of its substitute will also increase. The larger is the share of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s budget to a particular good,
Monday, November 18, 2019
English literature - Essay Example In addition, they all point out that she lastly leaves the home although different argument are provided for the reasons she leaves and the manner in which she does so. The first theme statement that shows a summary of the story Ã¢â¬ËA visit of CharityÃ¢â¬â¢ is the one depicting the ability to tell a person charitable efforts through the manner in which they treat those who are tetchy or bizarre. The second is that although the young individuals may involve into actions of charity, in most cases they are self-absorbed. In the story Ã¢â¬ËThe Man in the WellÃ¢â¬â¢ by Sher, it is evident that most children and adults cannot see into their psychological reality. This is illustrated when the children are unable to view down the well and, similarly, the man could not see them. In my opinion, this points out the inability of understanding oneself in both adults and children. The discernment of authenticity is likened to an unfathomable well that is deep within each
Friday, November 15, 2019
Elements of Literature Style is the spoken characteristics of a writer, as unique as his or her face or voice. Their styles express their individual ways of seeing humanity. Style is an insignia of independence and distinguishes a good writer from a meager or average writer. This is just one of the elements of literature. There are many elements of literature. When we read or hear poetry, we hear a speakers voice. It is this tone of voice that conveys the poems tone, its indirect mind-set toward its focus. Tone is a concept we make from fine points of a poems language: the use of meter and rhyme (or need of them); the addition of certain kinds of fine points and exclusions of other kinds; exacting choices of words and sentence pattern, of images and symbolic language. When we listen to a poems language and hear the voice of its speaker, we grasp its tone and feeling and eventually its meaning. Poetry is the impulsive runoff of potent feelings: it takes its foundation from emotion recollected in silence: the emotion is a contemplated turn over, by a type of response, the silence steadily disappears, and an emotion, relatives to that which was before the topic of thought, is steadily formed, and does itself in reality be present in the mind. In reading any poetry, it is essential to know what the words mean, but likewise imperative to understand what the words involve or propose. Poets choose exacting words because they advocate what they want to advocate. Its appropriateness is a function of both its denotation and its connotation. Poetry is stuck in the solid and the precise in details that arouse our senses for it is through our senses that we see the world. When such details become visible in poetry, they are called images. An image is a solid symbol of a sense notion, reaction, or thought. Language can be classified as both literal and not literal. When we speak factually, we mean precisely what each word conveys; when we use metaphorical language we mean something other than the real meaning of the words. Figures of speech are language or ways of using words in a non-literal logic. They consist of hyperbole; irony; or use a part to indicate the whole; or substituting an aspect of an object for the object itself; endowing inert objects or conceptual concepts with living distinctiveness or persona. Two that are above all essential for poetry are simile or metaphor. The feeling of both these figures is assessment, which is the building of relations between normally not related things. Metaphor is an insightful view of the resemblance in dissimilar. Simile establishes the similarity clearly with the words like or as. Metaphor, then again, employs no such clear spoken clue. The comparison is indirect in such a way that the symbolic term is substituted for or recognized with the exact one. The simile is more limited in its relative implication than is the metaphor. A symbol is an item or act that represents something further than itself. Correlated to symbolism, allegory, is a type of sequence of events in which people, places and happenings have unknown or representational meaning. Allegory differs from symbolism in establishing a firm system of correspondences linking facts of action and a guide of meaning. Syntax is the display of words in sentences, phrases, or clauses. Poets use syntax as they use images, pronunciation, formation, noise, and tempo to say meaning and suggest feelings. It is an essential component of its tone and a lead to the speakers emotional state. Rhyme is the nearly all recognizable aspect of poetry. It is clear as the corresponding of concluding vowel or consonant sounds in two or more words. When corresponding sounds take place at the ends of lines we have ending rhyme; when they take place inside lines we have inner rhyme. In addition to rhyme, two other forms of sound take part in reign in poetry: alliteration, which is the recurrence of consonant sounds, particularly at the beginning of words, and assonance, which is the recurrence of vowel sounds. Rhythm refers to the standard repetition of the tone of voice or anxiety in poems or songs. It is the pulsation or thrash we feel in a saying of music or a line of poetry. We obtain our logic of tempo from day by day life and from our knowledge with language and music. Meter is the review or ornate reckoning of a poetic line. Meter is a reckoning of the stresses we experience in the poems rhythm. By principle, the component of poetic meter in English is the base, a component of assess consisting of strained and undisturbed syllables. When we explore a poems structure, we center on its patterns of association. Form exists in poems on various levels from patterns of noise and picture to structures of syntax and of thinking; it is as a great deal an issue of phrase and line as of verse and entire poem. Open or free form does not mean fluidity. It suggests, as an alternative, that poets get the most out of on the free will either to make their own forms or to use the conventional fixed forms in more supple ways. Structure regularly provides clues to disposition and achievement. We have in the past defined theme as an inspiration or emotionally apprehensible meaning natural and understood in an effort. When shaping a poems theme we should be cautious neither to generalize the poem nor to misrepresent its meaning. We should also be on familiar terms with the fact that poems can have several themes: poems can be interpreted from more than one point of view and there is more than one way to affirm or clarify a poems meaning. The essential idea of the poem is articulated in its opening line. An announcement of the poems theme has to contain the idea of it. In doing all of my readings for the past few weeks, I have come to realize that a lot of the stories and poems share some of the same themes. For instance, the poem To my Dear and Loving Husband, by: Anne Bradstreet, p.1077 in the text, My mistress eyes are nothing like the sun, by: William Shakespeare, p.1187 in the text, and My Papas Waltz, by: Theodore Roethke, p.773 in the text, all have the theme of love. To My Dear and Loving Husband, is the story of a womans unconditional love and honor of her husband. She states in the poem, I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold or all the riches that the East doth hold. My Mistress eyes are nothing like the sun, is the story of a mans love for his mistress. He states in the poem, And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare as any she belied with false compare. My Papas Waltz, is the story of a young man growing up with an alcoholic father. The young man loves his father, but the father loves his alcohol more and the young man is try ing to get the love from his father. I have come to realize that literature reflects community, and persons and the people affect each other. Literature reflects communities by situation of time, culture, settings, attitude, and values at the time. Literature uses language to indicate what it feels like to live during particular surroundings. Literature also helps to create knowledge, not just imitate it. Cultural approaching can be used to give an affluent and enlightening historical context for fictitious work. It uses papers, expressions, and images of the area to assist the reader with a sense of the community described in the story. In the story The Lesson, by Toni Bambara, it uses language to indicate circumstances, culture, and community. The author used language spoken by some African-American citizens in the southern communities to assist readers with what culture and race the citizens are. On page 427, the words nappy hair was used, then on pages 428-429, purdee hot, and punchin were used, and that gives readers a good idea of what race and culture the citizens were. In The Lesson, the story also alerts you on the requirement of education and the consequences of having an education. It illustrates how an education may not be fun or easy to achieve, but it is essential for a constructive change to come about. The story looks at types of self-importance, direction, and ways people can value or disrepute each one in a community. An additional example of a short story that demonstrates how literature reflects the community is A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner. Faulkner uses A Rose for Emily to concentrate on theme of alteration and improvement, as it relates to the American South. He was stimulated to write about this because he came from a family that some time ago owned an agricultural estate and he had family narration in the South. Literatures sometimes use people as symbols. An example of how Faulkner used his characters as symbols of the larger issues in the South is in the character of Homer Barron. Homer Barron is the Yankee production foreman who became Emilys first real boyfriend. His association with Emily is well thought-out to be disreputable because he is a Northerner and because it doesnt show as if they will ever be married. An added example is by some of the old men wearing brushed rival uniforms at Emilys funeral which gives the reader an additional clue about the moment in time, values, and setting in the story. In wrapping up, I have specified examples to intricate the various elements of literature and expressed insight of the way literature reflects communities, cultures, individuals, and society in every day life.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Newspaper and online media have both done a good job to spread news story to readers. Newspaper as a traditional media is accept by most people for a long time. But as the technology is growing up, online media become a competitor of newspaper. Hall (2001, p.2) state that there are 200 million people using the web regularly and the web page is around 800 million. Nowadays, the web users are still growing up very fast. But the newspaper still playing a important role in news area. These two major news media become a part of people's life. Both of them have advantage and disadvantage. Newspaper had developed for a long time, and web technology is new. But they are all produce information to audiences as soon as possible. For many years, newspaper is the most easy media for audience to get news. Cole and Harcup (2010, p.4) believe that newspaper is easy to take and read it in anyplace your want. It is fast and cheap for audience. That is why many people like newspaper in the past. But a s the online media grow up these year. People can get free news on the website and the web news is much fast than newspaper. It offer people another convenience way to get news. In a multi-media world, the rates of those people reading newspaper is going down. Cole and Harcup (2010, p.7) state that newspaper is not going to died but the adult population of reading newspaper is going down from 77% to 50% from 1983 to 2006. And just 30% people think newspaper is popular in 2006. It is a huge challenge to newspaper after online news appeared. The newspaper and online media both use picture and language to tell reader story. But newspaper have a limited of picture and words. They could not use too many pages to show details. Website can add more pictures t... ...ine media both taking an important role in spread news nowadays. The advantage of newspaper is get readers attentions and make them have a great impression. The language and representation of newspaper will be much more profession and particularity. The limitation of newspaper is the space and time is not wide. They have to finish work on time and could not add information after finished it. And the disadvantage of newspaper is the advantage of online media. Website can edit anytime and provided as mush information as they wanted. Unfortunately, people have more choices on Internet means online media lost them quickly. Both newspaper and online media have their own characteristic. They need to learn from each other and think about how to catch audience and keep them. Change the disadvantage and get benefit from advantage will help each other develop in the future.